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透視熊貓們的海外旅行

作者:建芭樂

如果說「功夫熊貓」的成功代表了中國元素的世界發聲,「撒尿熊貓」(Urinating Pandas)的出現無疑地展現出中國的另一種急迫的關切。

當然,在展開今天主題之前,得先搞清楚是主角是貓熊還是貓熊。在2005年時為了迎接「熊貓」來台之際已戰過數回,當年的馬市長數度引經據典、糾正採訪記者有關即將加入木柵動物園的新貴賓是體型似熊的「貓熊」,而非13億人口慣稱的「熊貓」(請參考曾泰元的考據)。當時除了由左至右書寫方式的誤讀、乃至字典裡記載的是貓熊而非熊貓的說法都搬了出來,但畢竟我們不去菜市場、不開柑仔店、也不位在巷仔口、更不是泛科學,所以「貓熊/熊貓形態學」、「貓熊/熊貓政治學」、「貓熊/熊貓符號學」明顯的被排除在這次的守備範圍外。

「撒尿熊貓」是中國中央衛視(CCTV)製播的一部宣導短片,短片裡把中國觀光客在雪梨的脫序行為,描述成一群不守規矩的熊貓(misbehaving pandas),希望提醒中國觀光客在海外能避免不得體的諸行為以免破壞國家形象,包括橫佔據公園長椅打盹、爭先恐後的推擠、在樹上亂刻字塗鴉、在他人拍照時亂入等有失「文明」的行為。標榜著「作隻好熊貓,當個好旅客」(be a good panda, be a good tourist)的這支由DDB中國製播的短片,雖在中國國內「那是少數人的行為」的強烈抗議聲中移除,但該網站公佈的聲明也提到CCTV希望藉此影片提醒中國觀光客在海外觀光時能夠更文明,「請不要忘記整個世界正在看著我們」(如Fox的這則報導)。這短片同時也提醒著中國的焦慮;崛起的中國除了透過驚人的經濟實力及消費力亟欲證明「熊貓」已回到世界的中心舞台,更希望以「文明」說服世界有關於它的回歸。也因此,隨著「陸客走向全球」(Chinese tourist going global),「陸客」相關議題在觀光研究裡,不僅構成John Urry所提出「觀光客凝視」的討論,「被凝視的觀光客」本身更成為值得討論的有趣議題,作為國家考試受訓的合格導遊的「建芭樂」就來聊聊這幾年田野裡的觀察。

(CCTV的熊貓海外旅遊宣導短片)

隨著作為「被凝視的觀光客」的陸客大量到訪,逐漸改變了其海外目的地的觀光經營及吸客模式。不僅是日本在近十年的繁體中文標示逐漸簡體化,東京新宿與大阪梅田的商店街裡也掛起了「提供中文導購」的說明;台灣各地觀光景點商店也出慢慢出現了從「老闆不在偷偷賣」及「不純砍頭」變成「假一賠十」的有趣轉變。在東亞區域,不僅是日韓、台灣與香港,陸客的出現不但為當地經濟注入新活力,與陸客快速增加的同時,陸客的各種舉動卻也成為注目的焦點。包括喜愛在日本購買厚釜電飯鍋當成伴手禮,導致飛機上行李架爆棚、以及蒐購嬰兒尿片大量屯貨,導致當地人無貨可買;在香港因為大肆購買民生必需品被稱為「蝗蟲」過境、以及不斷地被放大解讀的「隨地便溺」問題(建芭樂在撰文的同時,台北101鼎泰豐也發生了讓人匪夷所思的桌上便溺事件)。儘管「隨處便溺」現象屬少數陸客所為,但由於東亞長期以來與中國交往與摩擦累積下來的「文明」對抗問題,「便溺熊貓」演變成一種確認彼此「文明」位階的問題,陸客也被當成是對中國政府出氣的替罪羔羊。例如Tourism Imaginaries:Anthropological Approach書中即提到了一連串的例子,探討社會想像如何影響並驅動觀光客的旅遊實踐。我的博士論文即分析「陸客寶島行」背後的社會想像(Familiar Strangers Afoot in. Taiwan: The Competing Social Imaginaries of East Asian Tourists)。

http://www.kcis.cn/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/page.jpg
http://www.kcis.cn/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/page.jpg

然而這些都只是觀光所帶來的外在現象的改變,實際上更值得擔心的是:觀光產業結構的內在轉變與各目的地旅遊產業被迫向中國大社靠攏等問題逐漸浮現。

這樣的結構影響不僅存在東亞,今年暑假建芭樂到人類學聖地峇里島參加學術會議時,就被當地與會學者談到一個有趣的問題:「華語導遊除了通曉華語以外,真的能夠稱職地導覽峇里島的文化嗎?」姑且不論觀光地的本真性如何演繹、及是否能夠正確傳達給觀光客這樣的關切外,當地導遊告訴我們的「產業一條龍」現象才是值得關注的議題。峇里島當地的華人團控制在少數華人旅行社的手裡,其中主要的一家掌握在中國經營者手裡,團客一抵達就搭上該旅行社的巴士、聽旅行社的導遊帶隊、途中經過業者經營的購物站、吃飯則選在控制下的餐廳、晚上住在配合的飯店,所有利潤歸給旅行社與其中國合作夥伴,陸客的到來對於當地觀光產業貢獻其實極為有限,而現在甚至連印尼當地的華裔導遊的工作機會也變少了,因為他們直接找到峇里島打工的中國人,「就是覺得旅客連自己想在哪裡吃飯、買東西都沒有辦法自己決定,所以才決定跳到別家旅行社,少接一些這種團。」這是帶領我們趴趴走一天的印尼華導的真心話。

同樣地,若從台灣觀光產業結構轉型來看,在2008年台灣開放陸客來台之後,觀光業經歷了一個重大轉型過程--由日本觀光客長期獨大逐漸轉向與中國觀光客並立,甚至到後來「陸客來台游」成為台灣旅遊產業的最大宗,可謂轉型速度飛快。儘管2011開放陸客自由行後,陸客「個人游」的比例大幅增加,團客的型態仍佔多數。在陸客來台初期,因為政治因素限制,以陸客團客為主的型態使得台灣旅遊業迅速地產生了「衝團量、接客數」方式主導的經營型態,產生的另個附帶結果是港資(中資)以「一條龍」的姿態席捲在台灣的觀光利益,包括接團、來台消費、飯店、藝品店皆有港(中)資介入。隨著台灣旅遊的開放,原先的產業結構變得更行扭曲。因為規模經濟關係台灣觀光業產生對中國組團社(organizing agency,在中國負責招收團客的當地旅行社)的依賴,台灣地接社(receiving agency,負責承攬陸客在臺旅遊之台灣旅行社)等紛紛產生以低價團衝量、以搶佔市場份額為目的作削價競爭,只求把團量作大進而將落後者擠出市場;至於如何維持一定獲利的問題則在其次,也就造成了現在團客3000-3500人民幣等「八日超值寶島」的「起得比雞早、吃得比豬差、跑得比馬快」等的不合理行程規劃。當然社區辛苦營造的成果及文創產業期待創造的小旅行風景、或是「台灣最美的地方是人」這樣的美景,幾乎很少發生在團客的旅行經驗中,更別期待陸客的消費能進到當地人的口袋中。

http://s1.djyimg.com/i6/807020108211509.jpg
http://s1.djyimg.com/i6/807020108211509.jpg
更因低價團的特性,導致旅行社的團費損失得從其他地方挖補回來,於是購物站裡的購物抽傭、或是給導遊低出差費、甚或要求導遊購買人頭帶團,都在建芭樂田野調查期間聽到過。在團客的一般認知中,導遊就是旅行社的延伸,但就與香港的導遊阿珍一樣,因為非聘僱契約而是委任或承攬關係的緣故,導遊一出事就等著被旅行社切割;不僅如此,因為台灣作為中華傳統文明守衛者的關係,國家更為華語導遊設定了高遠的目標—傳遞「民主價值」給陸客(范世平、王士維《中國大陸出境旅遊政策》書中所述),也讓台灣導遊們不得論利只得論義。相對於此,觀光主管機構忽略了產業的定價權關鍵掌握在中方組團社手裡,台灣地接社只能被動地因應;也為了維持「最美的風景是人」的國家表象而對遊走模糊地帶的導遊進行嚴格取締。也正因為觀光業承載了太多不同的社會想像與期待,就在前一陣子2014.8.28的「828叭惡霸」行動中全台導遊群集交通部前試圖向交通部長陳情,卻因導遊的低落形象得不到太多社會同情,間接也引發許多媒體評論認為導遊們是群起抗議陸客「個人游」的擴大開放,而忽略了導遊們痛苦的發聲是為了對抗這失衡的產業結構。
8.28叭惡霸導遊抗議行動現場。建芭樂拍攝
8.28叭惡霸導遊抗議行動現場。建芭樂拍攝

正如同CCTV希望熊貓的海外遊可以保持良好形象,台灣的貓熊愛好者們也期待貓熊台灣行的正面助益不應僅存在耀眼的年增成長率中!

本文採用 創用CC 姓名標示-非商業使用-禁止改作 3.0 台灣版條款 授權。歡迎轉載與引用。
轉載、引用本文請標示網址與作者,如:

建芭樂 透視熊貓們的海外旅行 (引自芭樂人類學 http://guavanthropology.tw/article/6175)

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1

借分享,謝謝~

2

鼎泰豐尿尿已經澄清是造謠,為何網主不求證就繼續散布及加持謠言哩?

3

根據一段時間後的最新版,101鼎泰豐為真,但蘋果另報導的101美食街部分則是誤解
本文只提到101鼎泰豐部分,因此不是繼續散佈謠言
反而中國時報刻意模糊兩者,誤導讀者以為後者即是前者,才是散佈謠言

4

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